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Author Topic: Biblical Flat Earth and Cosmos  (Read 33180 times)

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patrick jane

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Re: Biblical Flat Earth and Cosmos
« Reply #143 on: May 14, 2021, 06:26:35 pm »
Gravity's "Big Proof" - EXPOSED (The Cavendish Effect)


42 minutes
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=DTgU3Kect-4

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Re: Biblical Flat Earth and Cosmos
« Reply #145 on: May 22, 2021, 05:23:45 pm »
The Final Card


With the alien and UFO deception upon us, it's important that those you care about see what we are really up against and how deceived we've been about this topic. The disclosure should be here June 1st and although we don't know what they are going to release, we do know that it is just a part of the plan we were warned about.


My brother Michael has worked hard compiling all of the information in this video, so you need to checkout the original on his channel and subscribe while you can find it as he is shadow banned worse than we are:
  https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCDieF0brQdUicgnKomCbpVA


43 minutes
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=eJK1gLHbOxA

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Re: Biblical Enclosed Flat Earth and Cosmos
« Reply #146 on: May 29, 2021, 01:17:30 pm »
From @Gleason92 :

"I would like to add a little more to this (from memory) before I carve out some time in the indeterminate future to fully support this claim. Here's the birds eye view of calculating the Moon distance deception.

After crunching the values you are left with one number, let's say for argument's sake that number is 27,000 (I made this up for argument's sake). Now the last step of the formula is to divide 27000 by a factor. We all know divide means to break the whole into smaller pieces. But there's a catch, if you divide any number into ANY value that's between 0-1 you actually have an answer that is GREATER than original.


For example:

8 pieces divided by 4=2 pieces.

But

8 pieces divided by 0.25=32 pieces.

This is one justification of just how sly and cunning this deception truly is. So if trig value for moon distance is 27000, you would divide by a number>1 and reach an answer<27000, in reality, like I alluded to, about 3000 miles. Ahhh but since we MUST account for curve we inject a variable that reduces our divisor to, surprise, a value in between 0-1 effectively increasing the total to>27000 or in this case the alleged 230 thousand miles or so of pure fantasy that is currently alleged as the distance today.

The videographed proof of this rests on YouTube and was presented by user Jeranism and friends. Here's the catch, I firmly believe Jeranism is cointelpro, BUT to remain credible, even the opposition must filter in truth from time to time. Not only is this a time but they placed video shots of the spreadsheet with the formulas on the screen and provided a detailed breakdown of every step of the calculation. So if you'd rather not wait for me to recreate, there's your source.



Masonic Globe Math

Here's the original globe and curvature math if I'm not mistaken :

8 inches per mile squared means as you add each mile to the formula, the curve gets steeper because it's allegedly a ball

So1 mile=8 inches*(1 mile^2)=8 inch "downward sloping curve" 1 mile out, or let's say we want to express that value in feet. 8 inches/12 inches (one foot)=0.666 feet
10 miles=8 inches*(10^2)=800 inches or 66.6 feet
100 miles=8 inches*(100^2)=80,000 inches or 6,666 feet

And this :






Fun math related fact readers. I learned that the distance to the Moon, currently alleged to be about 230,000 miles away requires a special "curvature variable" in the trig formula to conclude this ridiculous value. When you apply the directly observed values to the trigonometry formula, surprise the Moon is about 3,000 miles away. I can revisit my source and lay the formula out here if requested, but it could take some time.

Now to Eratosthenes. His stick experiment "works" because you must assume large and far away sun. If you assume local smaller (think 3,000 miles away, same as moon, as also depicted by the Masons) sun and flat Earth, his experiment yields the same results." My Eratosthenes video is coming soon !!!



where:

d is the distance between the two points along a great circle of the sphere (see spherical distance),
r is the radius of the sphere.
The haversine formula allows the haversine of θ (that is, hav(θ)) to be computed directly from the latitude (represented by φ) and longitude (represented by λ) of the two points:




where

φ1, φ2 are the latitude of point 1 and latitude of point 2 (in radians),
λ1, λ2 are the longitude of point 1 and longitude of point 2 (in radians).
Finally, the haversine function hav(θ), applied above to both the central angle θ and the differences in latitude and longitude, is




The haversine function computes half a versine of the angle θ.

To solve for the distance d, apply the archaversine (inverse haversine) to h = hav(θ) or use the arcsine (inverse sine) function:




or more explicitly:




When using these formulae, one must ensure that h does not exceed 1 due to a floating point error (d is only real for 0 ≤ h ≤ 1). h only approaches 1 for antipodal points (on opposite sides of the sphere)—in this region, relatively large numerical errors tend to arise in the formula when finite precision is used. Because d is then large (approaching πR, half the circumference) a small error is often not a major concern in this unusual case (although there are other great-circle distance formulas that avoid this problem). (The formula above is sometimes written in terms of the arctangent function, but this suffers from similar numerical problems near h = 1.)

As described below, a similar formula can be written using cosines (sometimes called the spherical law of cosines, not to be confused with the law of cosines for plane geometry) instead of haversines, but if the two points are close together (e.g. a kilometer apart, on the Earth) one might end up with cos(
d
/
R
) = 0.99999999, leading to an inaccurate answer. Since the haversine formula uses sines, it avoids that problem.

Either formula is only an approximation when applied to the Earth, which is not a perfect sphere: the "Earth radius" R varies from 6356.752 km at the poles to 6378.137 km at the equator. More importantly, the radius of curvature of a north-south line on the earth's surface is 1% greater at the poles (≈6399.594 km) than at the equator (≈6335.439 km)—so the haversine formula and law of cosines cannot be guaranteed correct to better than 0.5%.[citation needed] More accurate methods that consider the Earth's ellipticity are given by Vincenty's formulae and the other formulas in the geographical distance article.


The law of haversines


Given a unit sphere, a "triangle" on the surface of the sphere is defined by the great circles connecting three points u, v, and w on the sphere. If the lengths of these three sides are a (from u to v), b (from u to w), and c (from v to w), and the angle of the corner opposite c is C, then the law of haversines states:[10]




Since this is a unit sphere, the lengths a, b, and c are simply equal to the angles (in radians) subtended by those sides from the center of the sphere (for a non-unit sphere, each of these arc lengths is equal to its central angle multiplied by the radius R of the sphere).

In order to obtain the haversine formula of the previous section from this law, one simply considers the special case where u is the north pole, while v and w are the two points whose separation d is to be determined. In that case, a and b are
π
/
2
 − φ1,2 (that is, the, co-latitudes), C is the longitude separation λ2 − λ1, and c is the desired
d
/
R
. Noting that sin(
π
/
2
 − φ) = cos(φ), the haversine formula immediately follows.

To derive the law of haversines, one starts with the spherical law of cosines:

 


As mentioned above, this formula is an ill-conditioned way of solving for c when c is small. Instead, we substitute the identity that cos(θ) = 1 − 2 hav(θ), and also employ the addition identity cos(a − b) = cos(a) cos(b) + sin(a) sin(b), to obtain the law of haversines, above.
« Last Edit: May 30, 2021, 04:35:24 pm by patrick jane »

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Re: Biblical Flat Earth and Cosmos
« Reply #147 on: May 29, 2021, 01:20:54 pm »
The haversine formula allows the haversine of θ (that is, hav(θ)) to be computed directly from the latitude (represented by φ) and longitude (represented by λ) of the two points:




hav(θ) = sin2(θ/2).

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Re: Biblical Flat Earth and Cosmos
« Reply #148 on: May 30, 2021, 04:33:25 pm »


where:

d is the distance between the two points along a great circle of the sphere (see spherical distance),
r is the radius of the sphere.
The haversine formula allows the haversine of θ (that is, hav(θ)) to be computed directly from the latitude (represented by φ) and longitude (represented by λ) of the two points:




where

φ1, φ2 are the latitude of point 1 and latitude of point 2 (in radians),
λ1, λ2 are the longitude of point 1 and longitude of point 2 (in radians).
Finally, the haversine function hav(θ), applied above to both the central angle θ and the differences in latitude and longitude, is




The haversine function computes half a versine of the angle θ.

To solve for the distance d, apply the archaversine (inverse haversine) to h = hav(θ) or use the arcsine (inverse sine) function:




or more explicitly:




When using these formulae, one must ensure that h does not exceed 1 due to a floating point error (d is only real for 0 ≤ h ≤ 1). h only approaches 1 for antipodal points (on opposite sides of the sphere)—in this region, relatively large numerical errors tend to arise in the formula when finite precision is used. Because d is then large (approaching πR, half the circumference) a small error is often not a major concern in this unusual case (although there are other great-circle distance formulas that avoid this problem). (The formula above is sometimes written in terms of the arctangent function, but this suffers from similar numerical problems near h = 1.)

As described below, a similar formula can be written using cosines (sometimes called the spherical law of cosines, not to be confused with the law of cosines for plane geometry) instead of haversines, but if the two points are close together (e.g. a kilometer apart, on the Earth) one might end up with cos(
d
/
R
) = 0.99999999, leading to an inaccurate answer. Since the haversine formula uses sines, it avoids that problem.

Either formula is only an approximation when applied to the Earth, which is not a perfect sphere: the "Earth radius" R varies from 6356.752 km at the poles to 6378.137 km at the equator. More importantly, the radius of curvature of a north-south line on the earth's surface is 1% greater at the poles (≈6399.594 km) than at the equator (≈6335.439 km)—so the haversine formula and law of cosines cannot be guaranteed correct to better than 0.5%.[citation needed] More accurate methods that consider the Earth's ellipticity are given by Vincenty's formulae and the other formulas in the geographical distance article.


The law of haversines


Given a unit sphere, a "triangle" on the surface of the sphere is defined by the great circles connecting three points u, v, and w on the sphere. If the lengths of these three sides are a (from u to v), b (from u to w), and c (from v to w), and the angle of the corner opposite c is C, then the law of haversines states:[10]




Since this is a unit sphere, the lengths a, b, and c are simply equal to the angles (in radians) subtended by those sides from the center of the sphere (for a non-unit sphere, each of these arc lengths is equal to its central angle multiplied by the radius R of the sphere).

In order to obtain the haversine formula of the previous section from this law, one simply considers the special case where u is the north pole, while v and w are the two points whose separation d is to be determined. In that case, a and b are
π
/
2
 − φ1,2 (that is, the, co-latitudes), C is the longitude separation λ2 − λ1, and c is the desired
d
/
R
. Noting that sin(
π
/
2
 − φ) = cos(φ), the haversine formula immediately follows.

To derive the law of haversines, one starts with the spherical law of cosines:

 


As mentioned above, this formula is an ill-conditioned way of solving for c when c is small. Instead, we substitute the identity that cos(θ) = 1 − 2 hav(θ), and also employ the addition identity cos(a − b) = cos(a) cos(b) + sin(a) sin(b), to obtain the law of haversines, above.


patrick jane

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Re: Biblical Flat Earth and Cosmos
« Reply #149 on: June 02, 2021, 07:29:07 pm »
3114 BC

Mayan astronomers discover an 18.7-year cycle in the rising and setting of the Moon. From this they created the first almanacs – tables of the movements of the Sun, Moon, and planets for the use in astrology. In 6th century BC Greece, this knowledge is used to predict eclipses.
585 BC

Thales of Miletus predicts a solar eclipse.
467 BC

Anaxagoras produced a correct explanation for eclipses and then described the Sun as a fiery mass larger than the Peloponnese , as well as attempting to explain rainbows and meteors . He was the first to explain that the Moon shines due to reflected light from the Sun.[1][2][3]
400 BC

Around this date, Babylonians use the zodiac to divide the heavens into twelve equal segments of thirty degrees each, the better to record and communicate information about the position of celestial bodies.[4]
387 BC

Plato, a Greek philosopher, founds a school (the Platonic Academy) that will influence the next 2000 years. It promotes the idea that everything in the universe moves in harmony and that the Sun, Moon, and planets move around Earth in perfect circles.
270 BC

Aristarchus of Samos proposes heliocentrism as an alternative to the Earth-centered universe. His heliocentric model places the Sun at its center, with Earth as just one planet orbiting it. However, there were only a few people who took the theory seriously.
240 BC

The earliest recorded sighting of Halley's Comet is made by Chinese astronomers. Their records of the comet's movement allow astronomers today to predict accurately how the comet's orbit changes over the centuries.
150 BC

Hipparchus of Nicaea calculates the first model of the solar system based on trigonometry and determines the precession of the equinoxes.
6 BC

The Magi - probably Persian astronomers/astrologers (Astrology) - observed a planetary conjunction on Saturday (Sabbath) April 17, 6 BC that signified the birth of a great Hebrew king: Jesus.[5]
4 BC

The astronomer Shi Shen is believed to have cataloged 809 stars in 122 constellations, and he also made the earliest known observation of sunspots.
140

Ptolemy publishes his star catalogue, listing 48 constellations and endorses the geocentric (Earth-centered) view of the universe. His views go unquestioned for nearly 1500 years in Europe and are passed down to Arabic and medieval European astronomers in his book the Almagest.
400

The Hindu cosmological time cycles explained in the Surya Siddhanta, give the average length of the sidereal year (the length of the Earth's revolution around the Sun) as 365.2563627 days, which is only 1.4 seconds longer than the modern value of 365.256363004 days.[6] This remains the most accurate estimate for the length of the sidereal year anywhere in the world for over a thousand years.
499

Indian mathematician-astronomer Aryabhata, in his Aryabhatiya first identifies the force gravity to explain why objects do not fall when the Earth rotates,[7] propounds a geocentric Solar System of gravitation, and an eccentric elliptical model of the planets, where the planets spin on their axis and follow elliptical orbits, the Sun and the Moon revolve around the Earth in epicycles. He also writes that the planets and the Moon do not have their own light but reflect the light of the Sun and that the Earth rotates on its axis causing day and night and also that the Sun rotates around the Earth causing years.
628

Indian mathematician-astronomer Brahmagupta, in his Brahma-Sphuta-Siddhanta, first recognizes gravity as a force of attraction, and briefly describes the second law of Newton's law of universal gravitation. He gives methods for calculations of the motions and places of various planets, their rising and setting, conjunctions, and calculations of the solar and lunar eclipses.
773

The Sanskrit works of Aryabhata and Brahmagupta, along with the Sanskrit text Surya Siddhanta, are translated into Arabic, introducing Arabic astronomers to Indian astronomy.
777

Muhammad al-Fazari and Yaʿqūb ibn Ṭāriq translate the Surya Siddhanta and Brahmasphutasiddhanta, and compile them as the Zij al-Sindhind, the first Zij treatise.[8]
830

The first major Arabic work of astronomy is the Zij al-Sindh by al-Khwarizimi. The work contains tables for the movements of the Sun, the Moon, and the five planets known at the time. The work is significant as it introduced Ptolemaic concepts into Islamic sciences. This work also marks the turning point in Arabic astronomy. Hitherto, Arabic astronomers had adopted a primarily research approach to the field, translating works of others and learning already discovered knowledge. Al-Khwarizmi's work marked the beginning of nontraditional methods of study and calculations.[9]
850

al-Farghani wrote Kitab fi Jawani ("A compendium of the science of stars"). The book primarily gave a summary of Ptolemic cosmography. However, it also corrected Ptolemy based on findings of earlier Arab astronomers. Al-Farghani gave revised values for the obliquity of the ecliptic, the precessional movement of the apogees of the Sun and the Moon, and the circumference of the Earth. The books were widely circulated through the Muslim world and even translated into Latin.[10]
928

The earliest surviving astrolabe is constructed by Islamic mathematician–astronomer Mohammad al-Fazari. Astrolabes are the most advanced instruments of their time. The precise measurement of the positions of stars and planets allows Islamic astronomers to compile the most detailed almanacs and star atlases yet.
1030

Abū Rayḥān al-Bīrūnī discussed the Indian heliocentric theories of Aryabhata, Brahmagupta and Varāhamihira in his Ta'rikh al-Hind (Indica in Latin). Biruni stated that the followers of Aryabhata consider the Earth to be at the center. In fact, Biruni casually stated that this does not create any mathematical problems.[11]
1031

Abu Sa'id al-Sijzi, a contemporary of Abu Rayhan Biruni, defended the theory that Earth revolves around its axis.
1054

Chinese astronomers record the sudden appearance of a bright star. Native-American rock carvings also show the brilliant star close to the Moon. This star is the Crab supernova exploding.
1070

Abu Ubayd al-Juzjani published the Tarik al-Aflak. In his work, he indicated the so-called "equant" problem of the Ptolemic model. Al-Juzjani even proposed a solution to the problem. In al-Andalus, the anonymous work al-Istidrak ala Batlamyus (meaning "Recapitulation regarding Ptolemy"), included a list of objections to the Ptolemic astronomy.

One of the most important works in the period was Al-Shuku ala Batlamyus ("Doubts on Ptolemy"). In this, the author summed up the inconsistencies of the Ptolemic models. Many astronomers took up the challenge posed in this work, namely to develop alternate models that evaded such errors.
1126

Islamic and Indian astronomical works (including Aryabhatiya and Brahma-Sphuta-Siddhanta) are translated into Latin in Córdoba, Spain in 1126, introducing European astronomers to Islamic and Indian astronomy.
1150

Indian mathematician-astronomer Bhāskara II, in his Siddhanta Shiromani, calculates the longitudes and latitudes of the planets, lunar and solar eclipses, risings and settings, the Moon's lunar crescent, syzygies, and conjunctions of the planets with each other and with the fixed stars, and explains the three problems of diurnal rotation. He also calculates the planetary mean motion, ellipses, first visibilities of the planets, the lunar crescent, the seasons, and the length of the Earth's revolution around the Sun to 9 decimal places.
1190

Al-Bitruji proposed an alternative geocentric system to Ptolemy's. He also declared the Ptolemaic system as mathematical, and not physical. His alternative system spread through most of Europe during the 13th century, with debates and refutations of his ideas continued to the 16th century.[12][13]
1250

Mo'ayyeduddin Urdi develops the Urdi lemma, which is later used in the Copernican heliocentric model.

Nasir al-Din al-Tusi resolved significant problems in the Ptolemaic system by developing the Tusi-couple as an alternative to the physically problematic equant introduced by Ptolemy.[14] His Tusi-couple is later used in the Copernican model.

Tusi's student Qutb al-Din al-Shirazi, in his The Limit of Accomplishment concerning Knowledge of the Heavens, discusses the possibility of heliocentrism.

Najm al-Din al-Qazwini al-Katibi, who also worked at the Maraghah observatory, in his Hikmat al-'Ain, wrote an argument for a heliocentric model, though he later abandoned the idea.[citation needed]
1350

Ibn al-Shatir (1304–1375), in his A Final Inquiry Concerning the Rectification of Planetary Theory, eliminated the need for an equant by introducing an extra epicycle, departing from the Ptolemaic system in a way very similar to what Copernicus later also did. Ibn al-Shatir proposed a system that was only approximately geocentric, rather than exactly so, having demonstrated trigonometrically that the Earth was not the exact center of the universe. His rectification is later used in the Copernican model.
1543

Nicolaus Copernicus publishes De revolutionibus orbium coelestium containing his theory that Earth travels around the Sun. However, he complicates his theory by retaining Plato's perfect circular orbits of the planets.
1572

A brilliant supernova (SN 1572 - thought, at the time, to be a comet) is observed by Tycho Brahe, who proves that it is traveling beyond Earth's atmosphere and therefore provides the first evidence that the heavens can change.
1608

Dutch eyeglass maker Hans Lippershey tries to patent a refracting telescope (the first historical record of one). The invention spreads rapidly across Europe, as scientists make their own instruments. Their discoveries begin a revolution in astronomy.
1609

Johannes Kepler publishes his New Astronomy. In this and later works, he announces his three laws of planetary motion, replacing the circular orbits of Plato with elliptical ones. Almanacs based on his laws prove to be highly accurate.
1610

Galileo Galilei publishes Sidereus Nuncius describing the findings of his observations with the telescope he built. These include spots on the Sun, craters on the Moon, and four satellites of Jupiter. Proving that not everything orbits Earth, he promotes the Copernican view of a Sun-centered universe.
1655

As the power and the quality of the telescopes increase, Christiaan Huygens studies Saturn and discovers its largest satellite, Titan. He also explains Saturn's appearance, suggesting the planet is surrounded by a thin ring.
1663

Scottish astronomer James Gregory describes his "gregorian" reflecting telescope, using parabolic mirrors instead of lenses to reduce chromatic aberration and spherical aberration, but is unable to build one.
1668

Isaac Newton builds the first reflecting telescope, his Newtonian telescope.
1687

Isaac Newton publishes his first copy of the book Philosophiae Naturalis Principia Mathematica, establishing the theory of gravitation and laws of motion. The Principia explains Kepler's laws of planetary motion and allows astronomers to understand the forces acting between the Sun, the planets, and their moons.
1705

Edmond Halley calculates that the comets recorded at 76-year intervals from 1456 to 1682 are one and the same. He predicts that the comet will return again in 1758. When it reappears as expected, the comet is named in his honor.
1750

French astronomer Nicolas de Lacaille sails to southern oceans and begins work compiling a catalog of more than 10000 stars in the southern sky. Although Halley and others have observed from the Southern Hemisphere before, Lacaille's star catalog is the first comprehensive one of the southern sky.
1781

Amateur astronomer William Herschel discovers the planet Uranus, although he at first mistakes it for a comet. Uranus is the first planet to be discovered beyond Saturn, which was thought to be the most distant planet in ancient times.
1784

Charles Messier publishes his catalog of star clusters and nebulas. Messier draws up the list to prevent these objects from being identified as comets. However, it soon becomes a standard reference for the study of star clusters and nebulas and is still in use today.
1800

William Herschel splits sunlight through a prism and with a thermometer, measures the energy given out by different colours. He notices a sudden increase in energy beyond the red end of the spectrum, discovering invisible infrared and laying the foundations of spectroscopy.
1801

Italian astronomer Giuseppe Piazzi discovers what appears to be a new planet orbiting between Mars and Jupiter, and names it Ceres. William Herschel proves it is a very small object, calculating it to be only 320 km in diameter, and not a planet. He proposes the name asteroid, and soon other similar bodies are being found. We now know that Ceres is 932 km in diameter, and is now considered to be a dwarf planet.
1814

Joseph von Fraunhofer builds the first accurate spectrometer and uses it to study the spectrum of the Sun's light. He discovers and maps hundreds of fine dark lines crossing the solar spectrum. In 1859 these lines are linked to chemical elements in the Sun's atmosphere. Spectroscopy becomes a method for studying what stars are made of.
1838

Friedrich Bessel successfully uses the method of stellar parallax, the effect of Earth's annual movement around the Sun, to calculate the distance to 61 Cygni, the first star other than the Sun to have its distance from Earth measured. Bessel's is a truly accurate measurement of stellar positions, and the parallax technique establishes a framework for measuring the scale of the universe.
1843

German amateur astronomer Heinrich Schwabe, who has been studying the Sun for the past 17 years, announces his discovery of a regular cycle in sunspot numbers - the first clue to the Sun's internal structure.
1845

Irish astronomer William Parsons, 3rd Earl of Rosse completes the first of the world's great telescopes, with a 180-cm mirror. He uses it to study and draw the structure of nebulas, and within a few months discovers the spiral structure of the Whirlpool Galaxy.

French physicists Jean Foucault and Armand Fizeau take the first detailed photographs of the Sun's surface through a telescope - the birth of scientific astrophotography. Within five years, astronomers produce the first detailed photographs of the Moon. Early film is not sensitive enough to image stars.
1846

A new planet, Neptune, is identified by German astronomer Johann Gottfried Galle while searching in the position suggested by Urbain Le Verrier. Le Verrier has calculated the position and size of the planet from the effects of its gravitational pull on the orbit of Uranus. An English mathematician, John Couch Adams, also made a similar calculation a year earlier.
1868

Astronomers notice a new bright emission line in the spectrum of the Sun's atmosphere during an eclipse. The emission line is caused by an element's giving out light, and British astronomer Norman Lockyer concludes that it is an element unknown on Earth. He calls it helium, from the Greek word for the Sun. Nearly 30 years later, helium is found on Earth.
1872

An American astronomer Henry Draper takes the first photograph of the spectrum of a star (Vega), showing absorption lines that reveal its chemical makeup. Astronomers begin to see that spectroscopy is the key to understanding how stars evolve. William Huggins uses absorption lines to measure the redshifts of stars, which give the first indication of how fast stars are moving.
1901

A comprehensive survey of stars, the Henry Draper Catalogue, is published. In the catalog, Annie Jump Cannon proposes a sequence of classifying stars by the absorption lines in their spectra, which is still in use today.
1906

Ejnar Hertzsprung establishes the standard for measuring the true brightness of a star. He shows that there is a relationship between color and absolute magnitude for 90% of the stars in the Milky Way Galaxy. In 1913, Henry Norris Russell published a diagram that shows this relationship. Although astronomers agree that the diagram shows the sequence in which stars evolve, they argue about which way the sequence progresses. Arthur Eddington finally settles the controversy in 1924.
1910

Williamina Fleming publishes her discovery of white dwarf stars.
1912

Henrietta Swan Leavitt discovers the period-luminosity relation for Cepheid variables, whereas the brightness of a star is proportional to its luminosity oscillation period. It opened a whole new branch of possibilities of measuring distances on the universe, and this discovery was the basis for the work done by Edwin Hubble on extragalactic astronomy.
1916

German physicist Karl Schwarzschild uses Albert Einstein's theory of general relativity to lay the groundwork for black hole theory. He suggests that if any star collapse to a certain size or smaller, its gravity will be so strong that no form of radiation will escape from it.
1923

Edwin Hubble discovers a Cepheid variable star in the "Andromeda Nebula" and proves that Andromeda and other nebulas are galaxies far beyond our own. By 1925, he produces a classification system for galaxies.
1925

Cecilia Payne-Gaposchkin discovers that hydrogen is the most abundant element in the Sun's atmosphere, and accordingly, the most abundant element in the universe by relating the spectral classes of stars to their actual temperatures and by applying the ionization theory developed by Indian physicist Meghnad Saha. This opens the path for the study of stellar atmospheres and chemical abundances, contributing to understand the chemical evolution of the universe.
1929

Edwin Hubble discovered that the universe is expanding and that the farther away a galaxy is, the faster it is moving away from us. Two years later, Georges Lemaître suggests that the expansion can be traced to an initial "Big Bang".
1930

By applying new ideas from subatomic physics, Subrahmanyan Chandrasekhar predicts that the atoms in a white dwarf star of more than 1.44 solar masses will disintegrate, causing the star to collapse violently. In 1933, Walter Baade and Fritz Zwicky describe the neutron star that results from this collapse, causing a supernova explosion.

Clyde Tombaugh discovers the dwarf planet Pluto at the Lowell Observatory in Flagstaff, Arizona. The object is so faint and moving so slowly that he has to compare photos taken several nights apart.
1932

Karl Jansky detects the first radio waves coming from space. In 1942, radio waves from the Sun are detected. Seven years later radio astronomers identify the first distant source - the Crab Nebula, and the galaxies Centaurus A and M87.
1938

German physicist Hans Bethe explains how stars generate energy. He outlines a series of nuclear fusion reactions that turn hydrogen into helium and release enormous amounts of energy in a star's core. These reactions use the star's hydrogen very slowly, allowing it to burn for billions of years.


1948

The largest telescope in the world, with a 5.08m (200 in) mirror, is completed at Palomar Mountain in California. At the time, the telescope pushes single-mirror telescope technology to its limits - large mirrors tend to bend under their own weight.
1958

July 29 marks the beginning of the NASA (National Aeronautics and Space Administration), agency newly created by the United States to catch up with Soviet space technologies. It absorbs all research centers and staffs of the NACA (National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics), an organization founded in 1915.
1959

Russia and the US both launch probes to the Moon, but NASA's Pioneer probes all failed. The Russian Luna program was more successful. Luna 2 crash-lands on the Moon's surface in September, and Luna 3 returns the first pictures of the Moon's farside in October.
1960

Cornell University astronomer Frank Drake performed the first modern SETI experiment, named "Project Ozma", after the Queen of Oz in L. Frank Baum's fantasy books.[15]
1962

Mariner 2 becomes the first probe to reach another planet, flying past Venus in December. NASA follows this with the successful Mariner 4 mission to Mars in 1965, both the US and Russia send many more probes to planets through the rest of the 1960s and 1970s.
1963

Dutch-American astronomer Maarten Schmidt measures the spectra of quasars, the mysterious star-like radio sources discovered in 1960. He establishes that quasars are active galaxies, and among the most distant objects in the universe.
1965

Arno Penzias and Robert Wilson announce the discovery of a weak radio signal coming from all parts of the sky. Scientists figure out that this must be emitted by an object at a temperature of -270 °C. Soon it is recognized as the remnant of the very hot radiation from the Big Bang that created the universe 13 billion years ago, see Cosmic microwave background. This radio signal is emitted by the electron in hydrogen flipping from pointing up or down and is approximated to happen once in a million years for every particle. Hydrogen is present in interstellar space gas throughout the entire universe and most dense in nebulae which is where the signals originate. Even though the electron of hydrogen only flips once every million years the mere quantity of hydrogen in space gas makes the presence of these radio waves prominent.
1966

Russian Luna 9 probe makes the first successful soft landing on the Moon in January, while the US lands the far more complex Surveyor missions, which follows up to NASA's Ranger series of crash-landers, scout sites for possible manned landings.
1967

Jocelyn Bell Burnell and Antony Hewish detected the first pulsar, an object emitting regular pulses of radio waves. Pulsars are eventually recognized as rapidly spinning neutron stars with intense magnetic fields - the remains of a supernova explosion.
1970

The Uhuru satellite, designed to map the sky at X-ray wavelengths, is launched by NASA. The existence of X-rays from the Sun and a few other stars has already been found using rocket-launched experiments, but Uhuru charts more than 300 X-ray sources, including several possible black holes.


1972

Charles Thomas Bolton was the first astronomer to present irrefutable evidence of the existence of a black hole.
1975

The Russian probe Venera 9 lands on the surface of Venus and sends back the first picture of its surface. The first probe to land on another planet, Venera 7 in 1970, had no camera. Both break down within an hour in the hostile atmosphere.
1976

NASA's Viking 1 and Viking 2 space probes arrive at Mars. Each Viking mission consists of an orbiter, which photographs the planet from above, and a lander, which touches down on the surface, analyzes the rocks, and searches unsuccessfully for life.
1977

On August 20 the Voyager 2 space probe launched by NASA to study the Jovian system, Saturnian system, Uranian system, Neptunian system, the Kuiper belt, the heliosphere and the interstellar space.

On September 5 The Voyager 1 space probe launched by NASA to study the Jovian system, Saturnian system and the interstellar medium.
1983

The first infrared astronomy satellite, IRAS, is launched. It must be cooled to extremely low temperatures with liquid helium, and it operates for only 300 days before the supply of helium is exhausted. During this time it completes an infrared survey of 98% of the sky.
1986

The returning Halley's Comet is met by a fleet of five probes from Russia, Japan, and Europe. The most ambitious is the European Space Agency's Giotto spacecraft, which flies through the comet's coma and photographs the nucleus.
1990

The Magellan probe, launched by NASA, arrives at Venus and spends three years mapping the planet with radar. Magellan is the first in a new wave of probes that include Galileo, which arrives at Jupiter in 1995, and Cassini which arrives at Saturn in 2004.

The Hubble Space Telescope, the first large optical telescope in orbit, is launched using the Space Shuttle, but astronomers soon discovered that it is crippled by a problem with its mirror. A complex repair mission in 1993 allows the telescope to start producing spectacular images of distant stars, nebulae, and galaxies.
1992

The Cosmic Background Explorer satellite produces a detailed map of the background radiation remaining from the Big Bang. The map shows "ripples", caused by slight variations in the density of the early universe – the seeds of galaxies and galaxy clusters.

The 10-meter Keck telescope on Mauna Kea, Hawaii, is completed. The first revolutionary new wave of telescopes, the Keck's main mirror is made of 36 six-sided segments, with computers to control their alignment. New optical telescopes also make use of interferometry – improving resolution by combining images from separate telescopes.
1995

The first exoplanet, 51 Pegasi b, is discovered by Michel Mayor and Didier Queloz.


2005

Mike Brown and his team discovered Eris a large body in the outer Solar System[16] which was temporarily named as (2003) UB313. Initially, it appeared larger than Pluto and was called the tenth planet.[17]
2006

International Astronomical Union (IAU) adopted a new definition of planet. A new distinct class of objects called dwarf planets was also decided. Pluto was redefined as a dwarf planet along with Ceres and Eris, formerly known as (2003) UB313. Eris was named after the IAU General Assembly in 2006.[18][19]
2008

2008 TC3 becomes the first Earth-impacting meteoroid spotted and tracked prior to impact.
2012

(May 2) First visual proof of the existence of black holes is published. Suvi Gezari's team in Johns Hopkins University, using the Hawaiian telescope Pan-STARRS 1, record images of a supermassive black hole 2.7 million light-years away that is swallowing a red giant.[20]
2013

In October 2013, the first extrasolar asteroid is detected around white dwarf star GD 61. It is also the first detected extrasolar body which contains water in liquid or solid form.[21][22][23]
2015

On July 14, with the successful encounter of Pluto by NASA's New Horizons spacecraft, the United States became the first nation to explore all of the nine major planets recognized in 1981. Later on September 14, LIGO was the first to directly detect gravitational waves.[24]
2016

Exoplanet Proxima Centauri b is discovered around Proxima Centauri by the European Southern Observatory, making it the closest known exoplanet to the Solar System as of 2016.
2017

In August 2017, a neutron star collision that occurred in the galaxy NGC 4993 produced the gravitational wave signal GW170817, which was observed by the LIGO/Virgo collaboration. After 1.7 seconds, it was observed as the gamma-ray burst GRB 170817A by the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope and INTEGRAL, and its optical counterpart SSS17a was detected 11 hours later at the Las Campanas Observatory. Further optical observations e.g. by the Hubble Space Telescope and the Dark Energy Camera, ultraviolet observations by the Swift Gamma-Ray Burst Mission, X-ray observations by the Chandra X-ray Observatory and radio observations by the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array complemented the detection. This was the first instance of a gravitational wave event that was observed to have a simultaneous electromagnetic signal, thereby marking a significant breakthrough for multi-messenger astronomy.[25] Non-observation of neutrinos is attributed to the jets being strongly off-axis.[26]
2019

China's Chang'e 4 became the first spacecraft to perform a soft landing on the lunar far side.

In April 2019, the Event Horizon Telescope Collaboration obtained the first image of a black hole which was at the center of galaxy M87, providing more evidence for the existence of supermassive black holes in accordance with general relativity.[27]

India launched its second lunar probe called Chandrayaan 2 with an orbiter that was successful and a lander called Vikram along with a rover called Pragyan which failed just 2.1 km above the lunar south pole.
2020
NASA launches Mars 2020 to Mars with a Mars rover that was named Perseverance by seventh grader Alexander Mather in a naming contest

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Re: Biblical Flat Earth and Cosmos
« Reply #150 on: June 04, 2021, 03:39:01 am »
Round Earth distance to the sun, and therefore the size of the solar system, relies on the idea that the earth is a sphere. The triangulation method depends on an assumption about the shape of the earth.

Distance to the Sun
Q. Why are the celestial bodies and the sun so close to the earth's surface in the Flat Earth Model?

A. The celestial bodies must be close because if the shape of the earth changes, the distance to the celestial bodies must change as well. Astronomers use two different observations on far off points on earth to triangulate the distance of celestial bodies. When the shape of the earth changes, the triangulation changes, and our perception of the universe must therefore change as well.

Eratosthenes' stick experiment can not only tell us about the size of the earth, but can also be used to compute the distance to the sun as well. If the earth is round, the celestial bodies are computed to be millions of miles distant. If the earth is flat, the celestial bodies are triangulated to be relatively close to the earth's surface.

In his experiment Eratosthenes assumes that the earth is a globe and that the sun is very far away in his computations for the size of the earth and the distance to the sun. However, if we use his data with the assumption that the earth is flat we can come up with a wildly different calculation for the distance of the sun, showing it to be close to the earth. The sun changes its distance depending on the model of the earth we assume for the experiment.

Millersville University goes over the two ways of interpreting Eratosthenes' data. The first part of the article goes over the interpretation of his data under a Round Earth model, and the bottom part of the article goes over an interpretation of the data under a Flat Earth model.

Here's a link which explains the idea: http://www.millersville.edu/physics/experiments/058/index.php. The first part goes over the Round Earth explanation for how the sun can be computed millions of miles distant. At the bottom there is a Flat Earth explanation for how the sun can be computed as being very close to the earth's surface. Scroll all the way to the bottom to the "alternative model" section. You will find that we can use Eratosthenes' data, in conjunction with the assumption of a Flat Earth, to confirm that in FET the sun is very near to the earth's surface.

Hence, if we assume that the earth is flat, triangles and trigonometry can demonstrate that the celestial bodies are fairly close to the earth.

  “ Eratosthenes' model depends on the assumption that the earth is a globe and that the sun is far away and therefore produces parallel rays of light all over the earth. If the sun is nearby, then shadows will change length even for a flat earth. A flat earth model is sketched below. The vertical stick casts shadows that grow longer as the stick moves to the left, away from the closest point to the sun. (The sun is at height h above the earth.) ”





  “ A little trigonometry shows that ”




 “ Using the values 50 degrees and 60 degrees as measured on the trip, with b=1000 miles, we find that h is approximately 2000 miles. This relatively close sun would have been quite plausible to the ancients.

Continuing the calculation, we find that a is approximately 2400 miles and the two distances R1 and R2 are approximately 3000 and 3900 miles, respectively. ”

There is no other way to get a distance for the sun. Just looking at it from a single point on earth will not tell you its distance, you must look at it from several points and account for the curvature or non-curvature of the distance between those points.

Please note: The writer of that article makes a unrelated side comment about the Flat Earth model --

  “ That is, as we move from Florida to Pennsylvania, our distance from the sun increases by about 30%. As a consequence the apparent size of the sun should decrease by 30%. We see no noticeable change in the apparent size of the sun as we make the trip. We conclude that the flat earth/near sun model does not work. ”

This has little to do with the distance from the sun via triangulation methods. The writer of the above statement apparently did not read Chapter 10 of Earth Not a Globe. See: Magnification of the Sun at Sunset

Sun's Distance - Zetetic Cosmogony
Thomas Winship, author of Zetetic Cosmogony, provides a calculation demonstrating that the sun can be computed to be relatively close to the earth's surface if one assumes that the earth is flat and that light travels in straight lines --

  “ On March 21-22 the sun is directly overhead at the equator and appears 45 degrees above the horizon at 45 degrees north and south latitude. As the angle of sun above the earth at the equator is 90 degrees while it is 45 degrees at 45 degrees north or south latitude, it follows that the angle at the sun between the vertical from the horizon and the line from the observers at 45 degrees north and south must also be 45 degrees. The result is two right angled triangles with legs of equal length. The distance between the equator and the points at 45 degrees north or south is approximately 3,000 miles. Ergo, the sun would be an equal distance above the equator. ”

Sun's Distance - Modern Mechanics
Modern Mechanics describes how on a Flat Earth the sun can be computed to 3,000 miles via triangulation, whereas on a globe earth those same angles can calculate the sun to nearly 93 million miles away --




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Re: Biblical Flat Earth and Cosmos
« Reply #151 on: June 04, 2021, 03:45:34 pm »
Angles





With Refraction







No Refraction



http://walter.bislins.ch/bloge/index.asp?page=advanced+earth+curvature+calculator


Parameter Descriptions

Note: Values marked with a * are not dependent on Refraction in reality. The marked values show the apparent values if refraction is not zero. So to display the real values, set Refraction = 0. This is true for all Horizon Data as well.

Basic Panel
Observer Height: Height of the observer above sea level.

Target Distance: Distance from observer to target along the surface.

Target Size: Height of the target from sea level to the top of the target.

Refraction: Refraction Coefficient k. See Panel Refraction for more parameters. If you click on Std then standard refraction is calculated according to the observer height and standard atmospheric conditions. For show k is calculated see Refraction-Coefficient k.

Zoom, View∠: Zoom factor f = focal length in 35 mm equivalent units or viewing angle can be used to magnify the image. This two parameters are linked by the following equation (see Angle of view):


f = { 43{.}2\ \mathrm{mm} \over 2 \cdot \tan( \theta / 2 ) }


Nearest Target Data Panel

In this panel some calculated object data is displayed. If multiple objects are selected, the data for the nearest object is displayed.

Visible, Hidden: how much of the object size is hidden behind the horizon and how much is visible.

Angular Size, Angular Visible, Angular Hidden: like above but in angular size. The angular size is arctan( size / distance ) in degrees.

Refraction Angle: How much of the object is lifted due to refraction expressed as an angular size. See Refraction-Angle ρ how this angle is calculated.

Lift Absolute: absolute amount of apparent lift of the object with respect to eye level due to refraction.

Relative to Horizon: amount of apparent lift of the object with respect to the horizon due to refraction. The horizon appears lifted with respect to eye level by refraction too. If an object lies behind the horizon, its lift relative to the horizon is smaller than the absolute lift of the object with respect to eye level.

Target Top Angle, Target Top Angle FE: Angle α between target top and eye level for globe and flat earth (FE) respectively. The angle is positive if the target top is above eye level. Some theodolites measure a so called zenith angle ζ. The zenith angle is the angle between the vertical up and the target top. The correlation between this angles is α = 90° − ζ.

Angular Distance θ, Tilt θ: is the angle between the observer, the center of the earth and the nearest target. This angle is used in some Drop calculators, as the Drop x is:

x = R \cdot \big( 1 - \cos( \theta )



where'   
 '   x ='   'drop from the surface level
 '   R ='   'radius of the earth
 '   \theta ='   'angle between observer, the center of the earth and the target

Note that  is the same angle as the Tilt of the target object.

Drop: is the amount the surface at the target has dropped from the tangent plane at the surface of the observer. This amount depends on the surface distance between observer and target. This distance is dependent on the Target Distance and the Side Pos of the target via Pythagoras.

Bulge Height: is the maximal amount the surface appears to bulge up from the direct line through the earth from the surface at the observer and the surface at the target. This distance is dependent on the Target Distance and the Side Pos of the target via Pythagoras. Note, because the surface bends down in every direction on the globe, the bulge is always lower than the plane tangential at the surface of observer.

Distance: is the distance along the surface from the base of the observer to the base of the target. It is dependent on the Target Distance and the Side Pos of the target via Pythagoras.

Horizon Data Panel
Dist on Surf: is the distance of the horizon line from the base of the observer along the surface.

Dip Angle: is the angle between the horizon line and the eye level line as measured at the observer.

Dist from Eye: is the line of sight distance of the horizon line from the observer.

Dist on Eye-Lvl: is the distance of the horizon measured on the eye level plane.

Drop from Surf: is the drop of the horizon line as measured down from the tangential plane with origin at the surface of the obsever.

Drop from Eye-Lvl: is the drop of the horizon line as measured down from the tangential plane with origin at the observer height. Drop from Eye−Lvl = Drop from Surf + Height.

Frame Width: Is the width of the frame as measured with a scale at the center of the horizon. This amount depends on the distance of the horizon and the viewing angle or focal length. Compare with Left-Right Width.

Grid Spacing: is the distance between the grid lines of the globe model.

Left-Right Width specifies the horizontal distance between the 2 points where the curved horizon meets the border of the frame. The line between the 2 points passes through the earth. The distance of the line between this 2 points is smaller than the distance to the center of the horizon Dist from Eye.

Left-Right Drop (Angle) are the apparent drop height and angle respectively from the horizon tangent to the line between the 2 points where the curved horizon meets the border of the frame. The drop height is calculated from the drop angle using the distance to the center of the horizon Dist from Eye.

For a derivation of how Left-Right values are calculated see Calculating left-right Horizon Drop.

Radius Earth: is the radius of the earth used for all calculations. This value can be changed.




Exact Equations for the Hidden Height
How much of an object is hidden behind the curvature of the earth, the so called hidden height hh, depends on the distance of the object from the observer and from the height of the observers eye above the surface hO. The distance can be expressed as the line of sight d to the object, tangent to the horizon, or as the arc length s along the surface of the earth between observer and target.

Note: To calculate the hidden height you must not use the famous equation 8 inches per miles squared! This equation is an approximation to calculate the drop of the earth surface from a tangent line on the surface at the observer. It calculates not the hidden part of an object.

Depending on whether you know the line of sight distance d or the distance along the surface s the following equations calculate the hidden height exactly:


h_\mathrm{h} = \sqrt{ { \left[ d - \sqrt{ { ( R + h_\mathrm{O} ) }^2 - { R }^2 } \right] }^2 + { R }^2 } - R

h_\mathrm{h} = { R \over \cos\left[ { s \over R } - \arccos\left( { R \over R + h_\mathrm{O} } \right) \right] } - R


where'   
 '   h_\mathrm{h} ='   'hidden height
 '   d ='   'line of sight distance between observer and target, tangential to the surface of the globe
 '   s ='   'distance between observer and target along the surface of the globe
 '   h_\mathrm{O} ='   'eye height of the observer measured from the surface of the globe
 '   R ='   '6371 km = radius of the earth without refraction; 7433 km = radius to use for standard refraction 7/6 Rearth; 7681 km = radius for standard refraction k = 0.17 (sea level)


The same equations can be used to calculate the hidden height with and without refraction. You simply have to choose the corresponding value for R. Because under standard refraction the earth looks less curved, you can use a bigger radius for the earth than it is in reality. For standard refraction 7/6 · Rearth use R = 7433 km. For standard refraction k = 0.17 use R = 7681 km.

There are multiple slightly different values for standard refraction in use. Near the ground the bigger value is more accurate. For higher altitudes the smaller value is more accurate. If you press the button Std the App calculates refraction depending on the observer altitude. Near sea level refraction is about k = 0.17.

The hidden height equations are only valid if the object lies behind the horizon. That is if the distance to the horizon dH or sH is less than the distance to the target d or s.

The exact distances to the horizon can be calculated with the following equations:



d_\mathrm{H} = \sqrt{ { ( R + h_\mathrm{O} ) }^2 - { R }^2 }

s_\mathrm{H} = R \cdot \arccos\left( { R \over R + h_\mathrm{O} } \right)

where'   
 '   d_\mathrm{H} ='   'line of sight distance to the horizon
 '   s_\mathrm{H} ='   'distance to the horizon along the surface of the globe
 '   h_\mathrm{O} ='   'eye height of the observer measured from the surface of the globe
 '   R ='   '6371 km = radius of the earth without refraction; 7433 km = radius to use for standard refraction 7/6 Rearth; 7681 km = radius for standard refraction k = 0.17 (sea level)


Approximation Equations for the Hidden Height

If the observer height hO is much smaller than the radius of the earth R, the Exact Equations for the Hidden Height can be simplified by the following approximation:


h_\mathrm{h} \approx { { \left( d - \sqrt{ 2 \cdot R \cdot h_\mathrm{O} } \right) }^2 \over 2 \cdot R }

for   h_\mathrm{O} \ll R

where'   
 '   h_\mathrm{h} ='   'hidden height
 '   h_\mathrm{O} ='   'eye height of the observer measured from the surface of the globe
 '   d ='   'distance between observer and target, line of sight or along the surface
 '   R ='   '6371 km = radius of the earth without refraction; 7433 km = radius to use for standard refraction 7/6 R earth; 7681 km = radius for standard refraction k = 0.17 (sea level)
Note: for observer height much less than the radius of the earth, the line of sight distance d and the surface distance s are identical for all practical purposes. So the equation above holds for both cases.

The distance to the horizon can also be approximated by the following equation:


d_\mathrm{H} \approx \sqrt{ 2 \cdot R \cdot h_\mathrm{O} }

where'   
 '   d_\mathrm{H} ='   'distance to the horizon
 '   h_\mathrm{O} ='   'eye height of the observer measured from the surface of the globe
 '   R ='   '6371 km = radius of the earth without refraction; 7433 km = radius to use for standard refraction 7/6 Rearth; 7681 km = radius for standard refraction k = 0.17 (sea level)

Conclusion: For all practical purposes while the observer is within the troposphere, so that the observer height hO is much less than the radius of the earth R, you can use the approximation equations. In this case for the distance between observer and target you can use the line of sight or the distance along the surface. They are practically identical.

Apparent Horizon Radius

How much the horizon drops at each end of the image depends on the focal length (zoom) of the camera. The curve of the horizon is barely noticable if the viewing angle is narrow (high zoom value). Due to perspective distortions, if we are not thousands of kilometers away from earth, the apparent curve of the horizon is only approximately a circular arc. This gets obvious on very wide angle lenses beyond a viewing angle of 70°. But at the center of each image the apparent radius of the horizon is exactly the refracted radius of the earth (about 7/6 R for standard refraction). The reason is because we are looking tangential to a great circle passing through the horizon point from left to right.

Why does the curvature appear different from different altitudes? Because as we increase the observer altitude the horizon distance gets bigger. Due to perspective, everything at the horizon appears smaller. This includes the radius of the earth at the horizon, which is the apparent radius mentioned here. So although the curvature of the horizon is always the refracted R, it appears different due to perspective and the distance to the horizon.
« Last Edit: June 05, 2021, 07:07:02 am by patrick jane »

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Re: Biblical Flat Earth and Cosmos
« Reply #152 on: June 16, 2021, 12:15:40 pm »
The People of Other Worlds - ROBERT SEPEHR


Dr. Hermann Oberth was a respected Austro-Hungarian-born German physicist and engineer, internationally-known rocket pioneer, and head of the US CALTECH Laboratories until 1955. Considered one of the founding fathers of rocketry and astronautics, Oberth eventually came to work for one of his students, former SS officer Wernher von Braun, who was developing space rockets for NASA.


1 hour
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8qqR5dJOpRo

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Re: Biblical Flat Earth and Cosmos
« Reply #153 on: July 01, 2021, 08:29:41 pm »
Uniform Circular Motion is Constant Acceleration



5 minutes
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=KAI3RNlMiFE


Consult any mainstream science publication or ask any science teacher "why can't we feel the Earth spinning?" and they will unanimously reply that it is because the globe spins at a perfect constant speed, and we can only feel acceleration or deceleration.  As CoolCosmos writes: "Earth moves very fast. It spins at a speed of about 1,000 miles per hour and orbits around the Sun at a speed of about 67,000 miles per hour.


We do not feel any of this motion because these speeds are constant. You can only feel motion if your speed changes. For example, if you are in a car which is moving at a constant speed on a smooth surface, you will not feel much motion. However, when the car accelerates or when the brakes are applied, you do feel motion."  The glaring problem with this claim rarely ever addressed is that the globe and everything on it, if it existed, would be undergoing constant acceleration, because uniform circular motion IS constant acceleration.

As published on physicsclassroom.com, "Uniform circular motion can be described as the motion of an object in a circle at a constant speed. As an object moves in a circle, it is constantly changing its direction. At all instances, the object is moving tangent to the circle. Since the direction of the velocity vector is the same as the direction of the object's motion, the velocity vector is directed tangent to the circle as well. An object moving in a circle is accelerating. An object undergoing uniform circular motion is moving with a constant speed.


Nonetheless, it is accelerating due to its change in direction. The direction of the acceleration is inwards. With the inward net force directed perpendicular to the velocity vector, the object is always changing its direction and undergoing an inward acceleration."  Therefore the globe's theoretical astronomy is at odds with demonstrable physics.  Uniform (and even moreso with non-uniform) circular motion creates a centripetal force which entails constant acceleration in constantly changing directions. 


The heliocentric models claims the Earth rotates in uniform circular motion at a constant speed while revolving an elliptical orbit around the Sun at another constant speed, while the entire solar system makes a circular orbit around the Milky Way galaxy at another constant speed, and the Milky Way galaxy shoots off in a straight line from their Big Bang beginning at yet another constant speed.  In other words, we are actually supposedly undergoing 4 different circular, elliptical and straight line motions simultaneously, but being told that we quote "do not feel any of this motion because these speeds are constant." 


They always give the example of a car or train going straight at a constant velocity and claim we cannot feel that motion, but what if the car is speeding along an elevated uniform circular racetrack, while that entire elevated racetrack is making an elliptical circuit around the racing grounds, while simultaneously the entire racing grounds themselves are on a gigantic moving circular foundation, while that foundation itself shoots straight off into the universe?  These are the actual variables involved with the globe's supposed constant speed that no one in history has ever demonstrated, measured, felt or experienced whatsoever. 


So the next time someone claims you cannot feel the Earth's motion because it spins a constant speed, remind them that uniform circular motion IS acceleration and acceleration IS felt, and when they give you the example of a car driving down a straight road, remind them that the car is actually driving on a circular racetrack, while the racetrack is making an elliptical circuit around the racing grounds, while the entire racing grounds themselves are circling around a larger foundation, and that foundation itself is traveling in a straight line. 


These 4 simultaneous varying motions the globe is subjected to in the heliocentric model create multiple acceleration vectors and destroy any possibility that they wouldn't be felt or measurable due to traveling at a constant speed.
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patrick jane

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Re: Biblical Flat Earth and Cosmos
« Reply #154 on: July 17, 2021, 05:34:37 pm »
Space Virgins Get Lucky?


3 minutes
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=6G4udHtgJYo


Space fantasy fan-boys and fan-girls have just received their latest damage-control propaganda update from actor Richard Branson where he claims to have gone to space and filmed the spinning-ball Earth for us (but really he just did some parabolic maneuvers simulating free-fall while in a fancy plane)! 


Unfortunately for old Dick and his riders, rather than use a normal lens to film the Earth, like all honest amateurs do when sending up their high altitude balloons, these space virgins, just like NASA, Space X, the Red Bull dive and all other so-called "official" sources, always suspiciously choose to use a fish-eye lens causing the horizon to constantly and radically warp from convex, to flat, to concave. 


As the camera tilts relative to the horizon the ends warp up or down respectively, but when held still and level the horizon is flat.  As the normal back camera shows, the horizon actually remains perfectly flat and rises to the eye-level of the camera all the way up. 


If the Earth was actually a globe, no matter how large, the surface of the globe would curve downwards in all directions away from the observer causing them to necessarily tilt their heads down more and more the further they ascended to be able to see the horizon.  In reality, which is only consistent with rising over a flat plane, the horizon rises along with the observer and remains precisely at eye-level for the entire ascent! 


This trick is apparent both in Branson's trip this week as well as Baumgartner's Red Bull dive from several years ago.  The fish-eye lens cameras show a constantly warping horizon which was already curving the picture at ground level the very same amount of so-called "Earth curve" that it showed at 128,000 feet just before diving. 


The trick is given away however when they switch to the regular non-fish eye lens camera inside the craft which shows a perfectly flat horizon still perfectly at eye-level while hovering over 20 miles above a supposed globe.  Do you see something wrong with this picture?  If you do, then welcome to the truth of your hoaxed reality.  If you don't, then enjoy watching these terrible slack-jawed actors with their mouths gaping wide open at how ridiculously gullible you sheeple are.

« Last Edit: July 20, 2021, 03:39:11 pm by patrick jane »

patrick jane

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Re: Biblical Flat Earth and Cosmos
« Reply #155 on: July 22, 2021, 05:52:25 am »
BECOME A FLAT EARTHER IN 13 MINUTES


13 minutes
Only available on my BitChute channel
https://www.bitchute.com/video/iaMV4bzmJdw/

 

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